Saturday, May 23, 2020

Learn the Basics of Earthquakes

Earthquakes are natural ground motions caused as the Earth releases energy. The science of earthquakes is seismology, study of shaking in scientific Greek. Earthquake energy comes from the stresses of plate tectonics. As plates move, the rocks on their edges deform and take up strain until the weakest point, a fault, ruptures, and releases the strain. Earthquake Types and Motions Earthquake events come in three basic types, matching the three basic types of fault. The fault motion during earthquakes is called slip or coseismic slip. Strike-slip events involve sideways motion—that is, the slip is in the direction of the faults strike, the line it makes on the ground surface. They may be right-lateral (dextral) or left-lateral (sinistral), which you tell by seeing which way the land moves on the other side of the fault.Normal events involve downward movement on a sloping fault as the faults two sides move apart. They signify extension or stretching of the Earths crust.Reverse or thrust events involve upward movement, instead, as the faults two sides move together. Reverse motion is steeper than a 45-degree slope, and thrust motion is shallower than 45 degrees. They signify compression of the crust. Earthquakes can have an oblique slip that combines these motions. Earthquakes dont always break the ground surface. When they do, their slip creates an offset. Horizontal offset is called heave and vertical offset is called throw. The actual path of fault motion over time, including its velocity and acceleration, is called fling. Slip that occurs after a quake is called postseismic slip. Finally, slow slip that occurs without an earthquake is called creep. Seismic Rupture The underground point where the earthquake rupture begins is the focus or hypocenter. The epicenter of an earthquake is the point on the ground directly above the focus. Earthquakes rupture a large zone of a fault around the focus. This rupture zone may be lopsided or symmetrical. Rupture may spread outward evenly from a central point (radially), or from one end of the rupture zone to the other (laterally), or in irregular jumps. These differences partly control the effects that an earthquake has at the surface. The size of the rupture zone—that is, the area of fault surface that ruptures—is what determines the magnitude of an earthquake. Seismologists map rupture zones by mapping the extent of aftershocks. Seismic Waves and Data Seismic energy spreads from the focus in three different forms: Compression waves, exactly like sound waves (P waves)Shear waves, like waves in a shaken jump rope (S waves)Surface waves resembling water waves (Rayleigh waves) or sideways shear waves (Love waves) P and S waves are body waves that travel deep in the Earth before rising to the surface. P waves always arrive first and do little or no damage. S waves travel about half as fast and may cause damage. Surface waves are slower still and cause the majority of the damage. To judge the rough distance to a quake, the time the gap between the P-wave thump and the S-wave jiggle and multiply the number of seconds by 5 (for miles) or 8 (for kilometers). Seismographs are instruments that make seismograms or recordings of seismic waves. Strong-motion seismograms are made with rugged seismographs in buildings and other structures. Strong-motion data can be plugged into engineering models, to test a structure before it is built. Earthquake magnitudes are determined from body waves recorded by sensitive seismographs. Seismic data is our best tool for probing the deep structure of the Earth. Seismic Measures Seismic intensity measures how bad an earthquake is, that is, how severe shaking is at a given place. The 12-point Mercalli scale is an intensity scale. Intensity is important for engineers and planners. Seismic magnitude measures how big an earthquake is, that is, how much energy is released in seismic waves. Local or Richter magnitude ML is based on measurements of how much the ground moves and moment magnitude Mo is a more sophisticated calculation based on body waves. Magnitudes are used by seismologists and the news media. The focal mechanism beachball diagram sums up the slip motion and the faults orientation. Earthquake Patterns Earthquakes cannot be predicted, but they have some patterns. Sometimes foreshocks precede quakes, though they look just like ordinary quakes. But every large event has a cluster of smaller aftershocks, which follow well-known statistics and can be forecasted. Plate tectonics successfully explains where earthquakes are likely to occur. Given good geologic mapping and a long history of observations, quakes can be forecasted in a general sense, and hazard maps can be made showing what degree of shaking a given place can expect over the average life of a building. Seismologists are making and testing theories of earthquake prediction. Experimental forecasts are beginning to show modest but significant success at pointing out impending seismicity over periods of months. These scientific triumphs are many years from practical use. Large quakes make surface waves that may trigger smaller quakes great distances away. They also change stresses nearby and affect future quakes. Earthquake Effects Earthquakes cause two major effects: shaking and slip. Surface offset in the largest quakes can reach more than 10 meters. Slip that occurs underwater can create tsunamis. Earthquakes cause damage in several ways: Ground offset can cut lifelines that cross faults: tunnels, highways, railroads, powerlines, and water mains.Shaking is the greatest threat. Modern buildings can handle it well through earthquake engineering, but older structures are prone to damage.Liquefaction occurs when shaking turns the solid ground into mud.Aftershocks can finish off structures damaged by the main shock.Subsidence can disrupt lifelines and harbors; invasion by the sea can destroy forests and croplands. Earthquake Preparation and Mitigation Earthquakes cannot be predicted, but they can be foreseen. Preparedness saves misery; earthquake insurance and conducting earthquake drills are examples. Mitigation saves lives; strengthening buildings is an example. Both can be done by households, companies, neighborhoods, cities, and regions. These things require a sustained commitment of funding and human effort, but that can be hard when large earthquakes may not occur for decades or even centuries in the future. Support for Science The history of earthquake science follows notable earthquakes. Support for research surges after major quakes and is strong while memories are fresh but gradually dwindles until the next Big One. Citizens should ensure steady support for research and related activities like geologic mapping, long-term monitoring programs, and strong academic departments. Other good earthquake policies include retrofitting bonds, strong building codes and zoning ordinances, school curricula, and personal awareness.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Definition and Examples of Interrogative Pronouns

In traditional English grammar, the term interrogative pronoun refers to a pronoun that introduces a question. These words are also called a pronominal interrogative. Related terms include interrogative,  wh-word, and  question word, although these terms are usually not defined in precisely the same way. In English,  who, whom, whose, which, and what commonly function as interrogative pronouns. When immediately followed by a noun, whose, which, and what function as determiners  or interrogative adjectives. When they start a question, interrogative pronouns  have no antecedent, because  what they refer to is precisely what the question is trying to find out. Examples Interrogative pronouns are all around us, whether you knew the name of them or not as you speak and read. Here are a a few examples from literature and other sources: Even if you do learn to speak correct English, whom are you going to speak it to?(attributed to Clarence Darrow)When a man tells you that he got rich through hard work, ask him: Whose?(Don Marquis)â€Å"I have water and Diet Coke. That was the only soft drink I allowed Howie to have. Which do you prefer?(Stephen King, Under the Dome. Scribner, 2009)What did you see down there in the kitchen? Caddy whispered. What tried to get in?(William Faulkner, That Evening Sun Go Down. The American Mercury, 1931)I got a belt on thats holding up my pants, and the pants have belt loops that hold up the belt. What is going on here? Who is the real hero?(Comedian Mitch Hedberg) Semantic Contrasts: What Versus Which Whether you use what or which in a question depends on the context of the question, whether there are specific items to choose from (which), or whether the question is completely open-ended (what). Of course, casual conversation brings exceptions. These pronouns express two semantic contrasts: (1) a gender contrast of personal (the  who  series) and nonpersonal (what, which):Who is in the woodshed? What is in the woodshed?(2) a contrast of definiteness: indefinite  what  contrasts with definite  which—the latter always implying a choice made from a limited number of alternatives:What was the winning number? [you must recall what it was]Which was the winning number? [you have a list of choices] Note also the use of what to ask about a role or status:What is her father? [a politician]Which is her father? [in the photograph](David Crystal, Making Sense of Grammar. Longman, 2004)What is used when specific information is requested from a general or open-ended possible range. Which is used when specific information is requested from a restricted range of possibilities: A. Ive got your address. Whats your phone number?B. Oh its 267358.(an open-ended range of possible information)[looking at a pile of coats]A. Which is your coat?B. That black one. However, where the number of options is shared knowledge among speakers and listeners, what noun is often used in informal contexts. Here, what is an interrogative pronoun used as a determiner: [talking about a shop]What side of the street is it on, left or right?(or: Which side of the street is it on?)A: Did you see that documentary about the SARS virus last night?B; No, what channel was it on?(or: Which channel was it on?) (R. Carter and M. McCarthy, Cambridge Grammar of English: A Comprehensive Guide. Cambridge University Press, 2006)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Active and Passive Verb Form Free Essays

Active / Passive Verb Forms Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have â€Å"active forms† and â€Å"passive forms. † You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English. We will write a custom essay sample on Active and Passive Verb Form or any similar topic only for you Order Now Active Form In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active. Basic form: [Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action] Examples: – The professor teaches the students – Jonh washes the dishes. Passive Form In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action. Basic form [Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action] |Active |Passive | |Simple Present |Once a week, Tom cleans the house. |Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom. | |Present Continuous |Right now, Sarah is writing the letter. |Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah. | |Simple Past |Sam repaired the car. |The car was repaired by Sam. |Past Continuous |The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the |The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the | | |store. |s tore. | |Present Perfect |Many tourists have visited that castle. |That castle has been visited by many tourists. | |Present Perfect Continuous |Recently, John has been doing the work. |Recently, the work has been being done by John. |Past Perfect |George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s |Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s | | |license. |license. | |Past Perfect Continuous |Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for |The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for | | |two years before he moved to Paris. two years before he moved to Paris. | |Simple Future |Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM. |The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. | |will | | | |Simple Future |Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. | |be going to | | | |Future Continuous |At 8:00 PM tonight, John wi ll be washing the dishes. |At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John. |will | | | |Future Continuous |At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes. |At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John. |be going to | | | |Future Perfect |They will have completed the project before the deadline. |The project will have been completed before the deadline. |be going to | | | |Future Perfect Continuous |They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. |The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. |will | | | |Future Perfect Continuous |The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six |The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six | |be going to |months by the time it is finished. months by the time it is finished. | |Used to |Jerry used to pay the bills. |The bills used to be paid by Jerry. | |Would Always |My mother would always make the pies. |The pies w ould always be made by my mother. | |Future in the Past |I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM. |I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM. |Would | | | |Future in the Past |I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. |I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight. | |Was Going to | | | How to cite Active and Passive Verb Form, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Asset transformation transaction cost free essay sample

Financial Intermediaries help to channel funds from the lenders to the borrowers through indirect financing. Some examples of financial intermediaries are banks, credit unions, insurance companies and pension funds. The existence of financial Intermediaries helps to solve and reduce market Imperfections. Asset transformation theory deals with difference In the preferences of lenders and borrowers. Lenders also known as savers, prefers to have low risk and short term claims with high interest income. The deposits from lenders tend to be in small amount. Borrowers also known as spenders, prefers to have long term claims with low interest payment. The loans are usually in large amount that are risky due to the nature of business. Financial Intermediaries transform maturity by lending long to the borrowers and borrowing short from the lenders. Deposit amount on average tend to be smaller and financial intermediaries parcel these small amount of deposits and transform It to large loans required by the borrowers. We will write a custom essay sample on Asset transformation transaction cost or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Risky loans are transformed into riskless deposits to reconcile the preferences of the borrowers and enders through three different methods. Screening loan applications through credit scoring, diversifying risk by avoiding heavy loan concentration and pooling risk by applying law of large numbers to reduce the variability of losses. Lastly, deposits are contracts that offer high liquidity with low risk while loans are illiquid with higher risk. Financial intermediaries can transform the assets with different liquidity features through diversification of their portfolio. Transaction cost incurred because of time and money spent in performing tlnancial ransactions. Prior to granting loans, search costs is Incurred by both the lenders and borrowers to search for the suitable counterparty. Verification cost is then incurred by lenders to verify the accuracy of information provided by borrowers to evaluate if they meet the credit criteria. After loan is being granted, lenders incurs monitoring costs, auditing costs and enforcement costs to ensure that the terms and conditions of the loan are adhered to and in the event that borrowers defaults payment, legal cost will be incurred when instituting debt recovery. The existence of financial Intermediaries reduce transaction cost with the economies of scale, with the Increase in number of financial transaction, transaction cost per dollar of output reduces. Economies of scope Is a cost advantage when more than one product Is produce jointly rather than producing them separately. An example is that deposits are legal financial claims by which banks both collect funds to sustain their lending activities and satisfy request for payment services. Lastly, financial intermediaries are specialized in gathering and analyzing information. Even though transaction cost may cut down an Investors profit, financial Intermediaries help to reduce such costs. Despite this, there are several fees that are unavoidable but it would be usually worth the cost for the particular return of the financial market asset. ton Asset transformation transaction cost By svacuum Financial intermediaries help to channel funds from the lenders to the borrowers intermediaries helps to solve and reduce market imperfections. Asset transformation theory deals with difference in the preferences of lenders and nature of business. Financial intermediaries transform maturity by lending long to deposits and transform it to large loans required by the borrowers. Risky loans are Transaction cost incurred because of time and money spent in performing financial transactions. Prior to granting loans, search costs is incurred by both the lenders and intermediaries reduce transaction cost with the economies of scale, with the increase Economies of scope is a cost advantage when more than one product is produce may cut down an investors profit, financial intermediaries help to reduce such costs.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Nut Grass and Bignay Bark Extracts as Effective Termite Killer Essay Example

Nut Grass and Bignay Bark Extracts as Effective Termite Killer Essay Termite is a common name for numerous species of social insects that can damage wooden structures such as furniture or houses. Of about 2000 known species, most are distributed in tropical countries and some inhabit the temperate regions of North and South America; two have become established in southern Europe. Termites are known also as white ants, a misnomer based on superficial similarities in the appearance and habits of these two insect groups. True ants belong to a more advanced insect order that includes also the bees and the wasps.Termites are relatively primitive; they have thick waists and soft bodies and undergo incomplete metamorphosis (see Insect: Metamorphosis). Nevertheless, they have developed remarkable patterns of social behavior that are almost as elaborate as those of the ants. To prevent damage by termites, building foundations should be built of materials other than wood. Because cracks may develop in such foundations and provide passageways to the wooden parts of the structure, the soil should be treated first with an insecticide to discourage termitic incursions.Control is obtained also by using wood treated with creosote or some other poisonous chemical. Because most worker termites cannot live without moisture, the termitaries should be exposed to dry air. Meanwhile, Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus (coco-grass, purple nut sedge, red nut sedge) is a species of sedge (Cyperaceae) native to Africa, southern and central Europe (north to France and Austria), and southern Asia. Also, found throughout the Philippines; a common weed in gardens, lawns and wastelands. Cyperus rotundus is a perennial plant, that may reach a height of up to 40  cm.The names nut grass and nut sedge (shared with the related species Cyperus esculentus) are derived from its tubers, that somewhat resemble nuts, although botanically they have nothing to do with nuts. The root system of a young plant initially forms white, fleshy rhizomes. Some rhizomes grow upward in the soil, then form a bulb-like structure from which new shoots and roots grow, and from the new roots, new rhizomes grow. Other rhizomes grow horizontally or downward, and form dark reddish-brown tubers or chains of tubers. Plants like Nut Grass excrete essential oils and have been identified as significant organic insect repellents.Experts call such plants are Terpetenoids. On the other hand. Bignay (Antidesma bunius)  is a species of  fruit tree  in the  Phyllanthaceae. It is native to  Southeast Asia  and northern  Australia. Its common Philippine name and other names include  bignay,[1]  bugnay or bignai,  Chinese-laurel,[1]  Herbert River-cherry,[1]  Queensland-cherry,[1]  salamander-tree,[1]  wild cherry,[1]  and  currant tree. [1]  This is a variable plant which may be short and shrubby or tall and erect, approaching 30 meters in height. It has large oval shaped leathery evergreen leaves up to about 20 centimeters long and seven wide.They are a ttached to the twigs of the tree with short  petioles, creating a dense canopy. The species is  dioecious, with male and female flowers growing on separate trees. The flowers have a strong, somewhat unpleasant scent. The  staminate  flowers are arranged in small bunches and the  pistillate  flowers grow on long  racemes  which will become the long strands of fruit. The fruits are spherical and just under a centimeter wide, hanging singly or paired in long, heavy bunches. They are white when immature and gradually turn red, then black. Each bunch of fruits ripens unevenly, so the fruits in a bunch are all different colors.The skin of the fruit has red juice, while the white pulp has colorless juice. The fruit contains a light-colored stone. The fruit has a sour taste similar to that of the  cranberry  when immature, and a tart but sweet taste when ripe. This tree is cultivated across its native range and the fruits are most often used for making  jam. It is ofte n grown as a backyard fruit tree in  Java. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Antidesma_bunius) The bark is poisonous, containing a toxic alkaloid. Contains phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids. (http://www. stuartxchange. org/Bignay. html)Insecticides are agents of chemical or biological origin that control insects. Control may result from killing the insect or otherwise preventing it from engaging in behaviors deemed destructive. Insecticides may be natural or manmade and are applied to target pests in a myriad of formulations and delivery systems (sprays, baits, slow-release diffusion, etc. ). The science of biotechnology has, in recent years, even incorporated bacterial genes coding for insecticidal proteins into various crop plants that deal death to unsuspecting pests that feed on them. (http://ipmworld. umn. edu/chapters/ware. tm) The insecticidal properties of the two plants as well as their abundance in Aklan particularly in the municipalities of Albasan and I bajay have motivated the researches to conduct this investigatory project especially nowadays when termites are nuisance to schools, offices and households. B. Statement of the Problem 1. What is the level of effectiveness of using Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus) Extract and Bignay (Antidesma Bunius) Bark extracts as a Termite Killer? 2. Is there a significant difference in the effectiveness of Nut Grass extract and Bignay bark extract in terms of termites killed?C. Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: There is no significant difference in the effectiveness of the two samples (Nut Grass Extract and Bignay Bark Extract) in terms of termites killed. D. Significance of the Study The results of the study will be of value to the community and manufacturers to come up with an alternative that can be used for many applications as a cost-efficient material component and environment-friendly in terminating the termites. If the researchers are lead by the study, the outcomes will be implemented for the best of all. E.Scope and Limitations of the Study This study was limited on the determination of the effectiveness of Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus) extract and Bignai (Antidesma Bunius Lenn. Spreng) Bark extract as a termite killer. It was studied and conducted at Kalibo Pilot Elementary School last July – August 2012. F. Definition of Terms For better understanding of the study, some relevant terms are given their definition. ALKALOIDS – Alkaline compound found in plants; a group of nitrogen – containing compounds that are physiologically active as poison or drugs. Microsoft Encarta Dictionary) CAROTENOIDS  are  tetraterpenoid  organic  pigments  that are naturally occurring in the  chloroplasts  and  chromoplasts  of plants and some other  photosynthetic  organisms  like  algae, some  bacteria, and some types of  fungus. Carotenoids can be synthesized fats and other basic organic metabolic building blocks by all these organisms. Carote noids generally cannot be manufactured by species in the  animal  kingdom (although one species of aphid is known to have acquired the genes  for synthesis of the carotenoid  torulene  from  fungi  by  horizontal gene transfer[1]).Animals obtain carotenoids in their diets, and may employ them in various ways in metabolism. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Carotenoid) EXTRACT – to withdraw (as juice) by physical or chemical process. Purified substance; a concentrated or purified substance obtained by first using a solvent to dissolve the substance when present in a mixture and then evaporating the solvent. An  extract  is a substance made by  extracting  a part of a  raw material, often by using a  solvent  such as  ethanol  or  water.Extracts may be sold as  tinctures  or in powder form. (Microsoft Encarta Dictionary) FLAVONOIDS – phenolic compounds naturally occurring compounds belonging to a large group that includes many plants pigments; have many beneficial effects in human diet as anti-oxidants, neutralizing free radicals which damage body tissue and lead to heart disease, strokes and cancer. (Microsoft Encarta Dictionary). ANTHOCYANINS  (also  anthocyans) are  water-soluble  vacuolar  pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue depending on the  pH.They belong to a parent class of molecules called  flavonoids  synthesized via the  phenylpropanoid  pathway; they are odorless and nearly flavorless, contributing to taste as a moderately  astringent  sensation. Anthocyanins occur in all  tissues  of higher plants, including  leaves,  stems,  roots,  flowers, and  fruits. Anthoxanthins  are their clear, white to yellow counterparts occurring in plants. Anthocyanins are derivatives of  anthocyanidins, which include pendant sugar (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Anthocyanin) PESTICIDE is any substance or mixture of substances specifically intended to prevent, repel, destroy or lessen the effect of a pest.The term pesticides is technically a catch-all phrase that specifically means one of the following: insecticide, herbicide, fungicide or any other chemical substances used to control pests. Pests that pesticides fight or kill may include insects and insect-like organisms, unwanted plants, weeds, fungi, viruses or bacteria that cause plant diseases, mice and other vertebrate animals or any other pest that may attack plants, soil, trees, structures or people. (http://organic. about. com/od/organicdefinitionsop/g/Pesticide-Definition-Of-Pesticide. tm) PESTICIDE   are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest. [1]  A pesticide may be a  chemical  substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacterium), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any  pest. Pests include  insects, plant  pathogens, weeds,  molluscs,  birds,  mammals,  fish, nematodes (r oundworms), and  microbes  that destroy property, spread disease or are a  vector  for disease or cause a nuisance. (Grolier’s Encyclopedia) Chapter II | REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Pharmacological activities of Nut GrassNutgrass is used to treat poor appetite, diarrhea, dysentery, fevers, parasites, gastritis, indigestion, and sluggish liver. It is said to tone the liver, spleen, and pancreas, and to treat malabsorption. Nutgrass can also be used to treat high blood pressure, bloody stool and urine, and vomiting blood, breast tumors, candida, colds, flu, and colic. It helps treat convulsions, moodiness and depression, premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and the pain and cramps associated with PMS, menopause, and heart palpitations. In India they use Nutgrass in hair and skin products as it stimulates sebaceous glands near the hair roots.The oil extracted from this plant is used in perfumery. A decoction of the roots and tubers is used as an antidote to any kind of poison. T he 5% nutgrass flatsedge extract can inhibit the isolated uteri of experimental animals by reducing their contractility and tension. Its volatile oil has a mild estrogen-like action. Its water decoction can reduce the tonicity of the intestinal canal and counter acetylcholine. The water solutions of its total alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic compounds have Cardiotonic and hypotensive effects.Alterative, Analgesic, Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antimicrobial, Anti-pyretic, Astringent, Carminative, Demulcent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Emmenagogueue, Emollient, Febrifuge, Hypoglycemic, Hypotensive, Immunostimulant, Nervine, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic, Vermifuge,Pungent, slightly bitter and slightly sweet in flavor, mild in nature, it is related to the liver, spleen and sanjiao (Three Warmers) channels. Stimulant, tonic, demulent, diuretic, anthelmintic, stomache, carminative, diaphoretic, astringent, emmenagogue and vermifuge. (http://www. mdidea. com/produ cts/proper/proper057paper. tml) Chemical Composition of Nut Grass Nut Grass leaves and roots contains: flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and fatty oils (glycerides). (http://www. tropilab. com/nutgrass. html) This herb contains a volatile oil with b-pinene, cyperene, a-cyperone b-cyperone and a-cyperol as its main ingredients. It also contains alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids. (http://www. mdidea. com/products/proper/proper057paper. html) Pharmacological activities of Bignay The tree may be shrubby, 10 to 26 ft (3-8 m) high, or may reach up to 50 or even 100 ft (15-30 m). It has wide-spreading branches forming a dense crown.The evergreen, alternate leaves are oblong, pointed, 4 to 9 in (10-22. 5 cm) long, 2 to 3 in (5-7. 5 cm) wide, dark-green, glossy, leathery, with very short petioles. The tiny, odorous, reddish male and female flowers are produced on separate trees, the male in axillary or terminal spikes, the female in terminal racemes 3 to 8 in (7. 5-20 cm) long. The round or ovoid fruits, up to 1/3 in (8 mm) across, are borne in grapelike, pendent clusters (often paired) which are extremely showy because the berries ripen unevenly, the pale yellowish-green, white, bright-red and nearly black stages present at the same time.The skin is thin and tough but yields an abundance of bright-red juice which leaves a purple stain on fabrics, while the pulp, only 1/8 in (3 mm) thick is white with colorless juice. Whole fruits are very acid, much like cranberries, when unripe; are subacid, slightly sweet, when fully ripe. Some tasters detect a bitter principle or unpleasant aftertaste which is unnoticeable to others. There is a single, straw-colored stone, an irregular, flattened oval, ridged or fluted, very hard, 3/8 in (1 cm) long, 1/4 in (6 mm) wide. P. J.Wester mentions a very distinct and superior variety as reliably reported from the Mountain Province, Philippines. Origin and Distribution The bignay is native and common in the wild from the lower Himalayas i n India, Ceylon, and southeast Asia (but not Malaya) to the Philippines and northern Australia. It is an abundant and invasive species in the Philippines; occasionally cultivated in Malaya; grown in every village in Indonesia where the fruits are marketed in clusters. The United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from the Philippines in 1905 twice in 1913), and again in 1918).Quite a few trees have been planted in southern Florida in the past and the fruits were formerly appreciated as a source of juice for jelly, commercialized in a limited way, but are rarely so used today. There are specimens in experimental stations in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Honduras and Hawaii. Climate The tree is not strictly tropical for it has proved to be hardy up to central Florida. It thrives in Java from sea-level to 4,000 ft (1,200 m). It grows well and flowers but does not set fruit in Israel. Propagation Many seeds are non-viable in Florida, perhaps because of inadequate pollination.Since see dlings may turn out to be male, and female seedlings may not bear for a number of years, vegetative propagation is preferred. The tree is readily multiplied by cuttings, grafting or air-layering. The air-layers have borne fruit in 3 years after transplanting to the field. Ochse recommends grafting in the wet season because scions will remain dormant in dry weather. Most female trees will bear some fruit without the presence of a male because many of the flowers are perfect. Culture The trees should be spaced 40 to 45 ft (12-14 m) apart, each way.And one male tree should be planted for every 10 to 12 females to provide cross-pollination. Wind-protection is desirable when the trees are small. Otherwise they require very little cultural attention. Yield Yield varies greatly from tree to tree if they are grown from seed. A mature tree in Florida has produced 15 bushels of fruit in a season. One very old tree at the home of Dr. David Fairchild produced 22 bushels yielding 72 gals (273 li ters) of juice. Season In Indonesia, the trees flower in September and October and the fruits mature in February and March.The fruiting season is July to September in North Vietnam. In Florida it extends from late summer through fall and winter because some trees bloom much later than others. Pests and Diseases The tree is attacked by termites in Southeast Asia. In Florida, the leaves may be heavily attacked by mealybugs and by scale insects and sooty mold develops on their excretions. Here, also, the foliage is subject to green scurf and algal leaf spot caused by  Cephaleuros tirescens. Food Uses In Malaya, the fruits are eaten mostly by children. Indonesians cook the fruits with fish.Elsewhere the fruits (unripe and ripe together) are made into jam and jelly though the juice is difficult to jell and pectin must be added. Some cooks add lemon juice as well. If the extracted bignay juice is kept under refrigeration for a day or so, there will be a settling of somewhat astringent s ediment which can be discarded, thus improving the flavor. For several years, the richly-colored jelly was produced on a small commercial scale in southern Florida. The juice makes an excellent sirup and has been successfully fermented into wine and brandy.In Indonesia and the Philippines, the leaves are eaten raw or stewed with rice. They are often combined with other vegetables as flavoring. _____________________________________________________________________________Morton, J. 1987. Bignay. p. 210–212. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, M Toxicity The bark contains a toxic alkaloid. The heavy fragrance of the flowers, especially the male, is very obnoxious to some individuals. Other Uses Bark:  The bark yields a strong fiber for rope and cordage. Wood:  The timber is reddish and hard.If soaked in water, it becomes heavy and, according to Drury, black as iron. It has been experimentally pulped for making cardboard. Medicinal Uses:  The leaves are sudorific and employed in treating snakebite, in Asia. | | Chemical Composition of Bignai (Antidesma Bunius) Phytochemicals / Flavonoids:  Analysis on Flavanoids Contents in Mao Luang Fruits of Fifteen Cultivars (Antidesma bunius), Grown in Northeast Thailand:  Study showed 15 cultivars to possess different amounts of flavonoids of catechin, proyanidins B1 and B2.Cytotoxicity:  (1) Biological Activity of Bignay [Antidesma bunius (L. ) Spreng] Crude Extract in Artemia salina: Study suggests that bignay possibly contains compounds with potential cytotoxic activity. The bark is poisonous, containing an toxic alkaloid. Contains phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids. (http://www. stuartxchange. org/Bignay. html) Pesticide application Pesticide application  refers to the practical way in which  pesticides, (including  herbicides,  fungicides,  insecticides, or  nematode  control agents) are delivered to their  biological targets  (e. . pest  organism,  crop   or other plant). Public concern about the use of pesticides has high-lighted the need to make this process as efficient as possible, in order to minimize their release into the environment and human exposure (including operators, bystanders and consumers of produce). (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pesticide_application). Application methods for household insecticides Pest management in the home begins with restricting the availability to insects of three vital commodities: shelter, water and food.If insects become a problem despite such measures, it may become necessary to control them using chemical methods,  targeting  the  active ingredient  to the particular pest. [11] Insecticide used for killing  pests—most often  insects, and  arachnids—primarily comes in an aerosol can, and is sprayed directly on the insect or its nest as a means of killing it. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pesticide_application) Chapter III Methodology This chapter include s the following topics: materials used in the experimentation, and the processes involved in making the treatments, ethods of research, collection of data used and statistical treatment Materials Nut grass leaves, Bignay bark, water, mortar and pestle, blender, coffee grinder, strainer, measuring spoon, warm water, beaker, graduated cylinder, plastic sprays, containers, scissors, basin Procedures A. Gathering of Materials The nut grass leaves were taken from the hometown of one of the researchers, while the bignay bark was taken from the KPES school campus. Materials as well as the apparatuses were taken from the science laboratory, gathered and prepared by the researchers for the study. B. Preparation of TreatmentsA. 100 ml. bignay bark extract and 0 ml. nut grass extract B. 50 ml. bignay bark extract and 50 ml. nut grass extract C. 0 ml. bignay bark extract and 100 ml. nut grass extract C. Application of Treatments The experiment was conducted at the Kalibo Pilot Elementary School , Kalibo, Aklan. The researchers gathered the needed materials for the experiment. There were three replications for each treatment. It was applied and tested from July 2012 to August 2012 and recorded by the researchers and were subjected to statistical treatment. Flowchart Gathering of Materials| Preparation of TreatmentsApplication of Treatments Evaluation of Treatments D. Evaluation of Treatments The researchers evaluated the samples in every replication using the Scaling System Mean of Samples Died| | | Description| | | | | 7. 00 – 10. 00| | Very effective| 4. 00 – 6. 59| | Effective| 1. 00 – 3. 59| | Not effective | E . Research Design The research design used in the study was completely randomized design. This is for studying the effects of one primary factor without the need to take other  nuisance variables  into account. There were three samples replicated three times applied at random on the sample.Completely Randomized Design was appropriate for the study because it has three homogenous sample. F. Data Collection Technique Pure observation method was used as a data collecting tools. The researchers took charge of the application and observation of the termite killing during school days between July 2012 to August 2012 for the purpose of data gathering. The data gathered were subjected to statistical treatment. G. Statistical Tool Used The mean (or average) of a set of data values is the sum of all of the data values divided by the number of data values.The mean is useful for predicting future results when there are no extreme values in the data set. Standard deviation shows how much variation or dispersion exists from the average (mean, or expected value). A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range of values. The data were interpreted using the Statistical Package for Social Scienc es Software. (SPSS). Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Table 1-ALevel of Effectiveness of Using Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus) Extract as a Termite Killer Treatment A Treatment (Level of Extract)| Replicates| Number of Samples Mortality| Total| Mean | SD| Descriptive Equivalent| | 1| 2| 3| 1| 2| 3| | | | | A| 10| 10| 10| 6| 6| 5| 17| 5. 66| 3. 01| Effective | Table 1-A shows the number of termites killed by using 100 ml. nut grass extract. Results show that treatment A with a mean result of 5. 66 signifies that it is an effective termite killer. Table 1-B Level of Effectiveness of Using Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus) Extract and Bignay (Antidesma Bunius) Bark Extracts as a Termite Killer Treatment BTreatment (Level of Extract)| Replicates| Number of Samples Mortality| Total| Mean | SD| Descriptive Equivalent| | 1| 2| 3| 1| 2| 3| | | | | B| 10| 10| 10| 5| 6| 7| 18| 6| 3. 05| Effective| Table 1-B shows the number of termites killed by 50 ml nut grass extract and 50 ml bignay bark extract. Results show that treatment B with a mean result of 6 is Effective as a termite killer. Table 1-C Level of Effectiveness of Using Bignay (Antidesma Bunius) Bark Extracts as a Termite Killer Treatment C Treatment (Level of Extract)| Replicates| Number of Samples Mortality| Total| Mean| SD| Descriptive Equivalent| | 1| 2| 3| 1| 2| 3| | | | |C| 10| 10| 10| 10| 8| 9| 27| 9| 1. 67| Very Effective| In Table 1 – C, a mean result of 5 shows the number of termites killed by treatment C. Results show that treatment C with 100 ml Bignay bark Extract is effective as a termite killer. Table 2 Difference in the Effectiveness of Nut Grass Extract and Bignay Bark Extract in Terms of Termites Killed Treatment| Mortality Rate| Mean Mortality| Verbal Description| | R1| R2| R3| | | A| 6| 6| 5| 6a| Effective| B| 5| 6| 7| 6a| Effective| C| 10| 8| 9| 9b| Very effective| *significant at 5% alpha level Table 2 shows the mortality rate of termites in each treatment.Treatmen t A with a mean mortality of 6a is effective as a termite killer. While, treatment B with a mean mortality rate of 6a is effective as a termite killer. On the other hand, treatment C with a mean mortality rate of 9b very effective as termite killer. Chapter V Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations This chapter presents the findings, summary of this investigatory project, the conclusions drawn based from the actual result and findings obtained, and some recommendations implied for further improvement of the study and researches done. SummaryThe study determined the insecticidal effect of cyperus rotundus extract and bignay (antidesma bunius) bark extracts as Termite Killer. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions; 1. What is the level of effectiveness of using Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus) Extract and Bignay (Antidesma Bunius) Bark extracts as a Termite Killer? 2. Is there a significant difference in the effectiveness of the two samples ( Nut Grass extract and Bignay bark extract) in terms of termites killed? The study was conducted between the months of July 2012 to August 2012.In the collection of data, the treatments were rated based on the scales provided as grouped according to the levels of nut grass extract and bignay bark extract. Findings: The following significance were noted: 1. The mean mortality of treatment A was 6a or Effective, while the mean mortality of treatment B was 6a or Effective on the other hand, the mean mortality of treatment C was 9b or Very Effective. 2. The mean result of all the treatments shows that all the treatments have the insecticidal effect. 3. Results show that treatments A, B, and C can be effectively used as termite killer Conclusions: It was concluded that: . The mean mortality of treatment A was 6a or Effective, while the mean mortality of treatment B was 6a or Effective on the other hand, the mean mortality of treatment C was 9b or Very Effective. 2. Nut Grass Extract and Bignay bark Extract can be effectively used as termite killer. 3. Nutgrass extract and bignay bark extract posses the insecticidal effect for termites. Recommendations: Based on the conclusions, the following recommendations are made: 1. Treatment A, B and C are all effective and can be used as a termite killer. 2. Future researchers should discover other ways of utilizing nut grass and bignay. 3.Information dissemination should be done to promote awareness of the new product. Bibliography / Interactive Materials: New World Encyclopedia. com Microsoft Encarta http://www. ciwmb. ca. gov/publications/plastics/43207003. pdf International Starch Institute http://www. foodreference. com/html/art-sweet-potato-yam. html http://www. freepatentsonline. com/5861461. html) http://www. experiment-resources. com/experimental research. html#ixzz2cIx66pVF (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Antidesma_bunius) (http://www. stuartxchange. org/Bignay. html) (http://ipmworld. umn. edu/chapters/ware. htm (http://en. wikipedia . org/wiki/Anthocyanin)

Friday, March 6, 2020

Kozol Amazing Grace

Kozol Amazing Grace Introduction A non-fiction literature writer by the name Jonathan Kozol who is best known for his publications concerning public education wrote about the struggles, problems and challenges that the children of the poor people face in USA. He started writing about public education after he was fired from Boston Public Schools after teaching a Langston Hughes poem but later he was offered a job in the district that he grew up in, Newton Public Schools.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Kozol: Amazing Grace specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kozol is considered a great educator and activist who did some great work in advocating for social justice mainly through his writings and interpreting scientific works e.g. in the field of social psychology (Schultz, 2001). Let us look at one of his writing, ‘Amazing Grace’. Kozol’s Work In this essay discusses the work of Kozol, Amazing Grace, in identifying the c hallenges and problems that America’s poor population faces in their day-to-day life. A larger percentage of the affected people are either black Americans or of Hispanic origins living in Bronx, St. Ann’s Avenue, Beckman Avenue, Cypress, Hunts point, Mott Haven, East Tremont among others. He introduces to us the disheartening experiences that these poor people face including discrimination and racial segregation. The most affected are the younger population especially children who are still dependent on their parents. He quotes when children are exposed to extreme hardships they are not hardened as people may think. The only thing that makes them survive is that they are usually full of hope and are more than willing to welcome better life. For instance the people who attend and live near St. Ann’s church are said to be the poorest in America, the pastor to this church was interviewed by Kozol and he mentioned that he had visited different parts of America and according to him this was the â€Å"poorest of the poorest by any standard he can think of† (Schultz, p 372). Statistical reports released showed that 95% of the residents of this area live below the poverty line. At a local elementary school at St. Ann’s Avenue, only less than ten children out of eight hundred children can comfortably afford their own lunch daily i.e. they are not dependent of the free lunches that are offered at the school. Five of the ten believe that they are just poor but not destitute and by this, the in most cases do not rely/ accept the free lunch offered (Schultz, p 372). As we know if poverty levels are extremely high then crime is most likely to be as high in the same areas and this reduces security in the areas. This is known to the government but nothing much is being done to manage the situation. The New York Times refers to this area, St. Ann’s Avenue, as â€Å"the deadliest blocks in the deadliest precinct of the city. They clai m that, if there is a deadlier place in the United States of America, they don’t know where it is† (Schultz, p 373).Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the precinct that in the early 90’s, when Kozol wrote his work, was leading in cases of homicide. Kozol says that a total of 84 people were murdered just a few months before he visited the area. Most of them were below 21 years of age. During his stay in the area another ten people were shot dead on Beckman Avenue and in this Avenue majority of the population are schoolchildren and this means that they were most likely exposed to this incidences. The following year which was 1993 on Valentine’s Day a whole family of six were shot in cold blood in their house and no one survived. Their house was only few blocks from them police but nothing was done to prevent the inhumane action from h appening (Schultz, p 373). The high crime rates as we have seen are promoted by the high poverty levels, but this is not the only outcome of the poverty. There is also a lot of drug use and poor health care. Talking of the drugs they also contribute to crime as we know and Mont Haven is the most affected area. Some analysis that Kozol quoted on his writing indicated that during the time of his research, there were over four thousands intravenous drug users most of which were addicts of heroin and cocaine. Intravenous drug users tend to promote the spread of HIV/ AIDS, a pandemic that has claimed a lot of lives all over the world. This is after sharing needles for injecting the drugs. Kozol says that after he interviewed several children from the areas I mentioned above, he concluded that at least every child in these areas knows of someone who died from AIDS, this may either be a neighbor or a relative. The most saddening news is that over 25 percent of all pregnant women that atten d prenatal clinic are tested positive of the HIV. From 1993 to the year 2000 over thirty eight thousand children were infected with HIV mostly through mother to child transition during or after birth. Most of these children only lived for one and a half years. Only 5% of them survived to 12 years and over 10,000 children were orphaned during this period. 20% of the 10,000 were residents of Mott Haven and they were mainly Hispanic or Black American. Kozol tells a saddening story of which was narrated to him as quoted below, â€Å"In one family, the father died two years ago and the mother is about to die. The four soon-to-be-orphaned children are being cared for by their 75-year-old grandmother. One of the children, a nine-year-old, is sick with full-blown AIDS. Another child, seven years old, is less sick but he’s been getting IV blood infusions.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Kozol: Amazing Grace specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The six-year-old may be okay. But it’s the 13-year-old girl, who isn’t sick, who’s causing the most worries. She’s staying out all night, defying her grandmother. She stared to do this at 11, when her father died. Recently, this girl had an abortion† (Schultz, p 377). Asthma, fear and anxiety are some of the most common diseases and problems respectively that children from this areas face in their lives. Winter season is considered the worst weather since they are never well protected from the dangerous cold weather. Rarely the government is forced to distribute free electric blankets and sometimes space heaters to protect them from the cold. This leads to over loading on the electricity supply in these areas and they are forced to turn to sleeping bags as an alternative (Schultz, p 372). Conclusion The residents of these areas especially children have their comfort on one song which to them is like a prayer, â€Å"Amazing g race! How sweet the sound, that saved a wretch like me, I once was lost and now am found, was blind but now I see† This is according to Jonathan Kozol who sympathizes with them. References Schultz, F. â€Å"SOURCES: Notable selections in education.† New York: McGraw-Hill Dushkin, 2001, p 370-380.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Explain the degree to which the personality and mental state of Essay

Explain the degree to which the personality and mental state of decision makers impose themselves onto the foreign policy of sta - Essay Example His advisors, including Dick Cheney, who was the Secretary of Defense, were concerned about the issue regarding the end of the Cold War, and they were well aware that the American people were questioning the necessity of a large military budget at that time, seeing as the Soviet Union was on the verge of complete collapse. On the other side was Saddam Hussein he felt that Kuwait was guilty of a multitude of transgressions, which included the fact that Kuwait had depressed oil prices by selling cheaply; that Kuwait was demanding that Iraq pay a debt, even though Hussein felt that the debt should?e been forgiven, because Hussein had defended Kuwait against aggression earlier; and that Kuwait was selling oil that Hussein thought was on the Iraq side of the border. When Hussein made noises towards Kuwait to try to engage them in negotiations over these issues, Kuwait ignored him, which made Hussein all the more angry. Combined with the fact that Hussein was feeling more and more powerles s for a variety of reason, not the least of which was the fact that he couldn? rely on the Soviet Union to help him out anymore, and the situation became a virtual powder keg. Hussein invaded Kuwait, and the United States intervened and made war on Hussein, and this is what caused the Persian Gulf War. This essay will examine the decision-making process of the key players in this conflict. Definition of Foreign Policy The grounds for examining the Persian Gulf War is in accordance with the theories set forth by Hudson (2006).1 She explains that international relations has a ground for its field of study, and that is that what occurs between nations and across nations is grounded in the decision-makers acting singly or in groups.2 That means that the individuals who are a part of the major decisions have a certain way that they perceive and look at the world, and this world view is what impacts their decisions. They are shaped by the world around them, and this is the basis of concer n for Hudson's analysis. She states that the analysis may be multifactorial, which is taking into account different levels of decision-making, and there also may be an agent-oriented theory that grounds the decision-making process. This is assuming that human beings are the true agent, and that international politics and change comes from the world view of these agents.3 This is the theory upon which this paper is based. Bush and his Advisors Reasons for Going to War   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Liberman (2007)4 proposes that punitiveness was one motivation behind the decision-makers decision to go to war in the Persian Gulf. In his article, he examines the nature of moral punitiveness, then suggests that President George H.W. Bush might have been motivated by this when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. Moral punitiveness has a basis in social psychology, explains Liberman (2007).5 Retribution is another word that Liberman (2007) uses interchangeably with moral punitive ness, and states that retribution is the basis for many moral decisions in public life.6   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Liberman (2007)7 states that one of the decisions that is shaped by moral punitiveness is the death penalty, and whether one believes that it should be legal or not. He states that a large percentage of people who believe in the death penalty believe in it because it is